خدمة تقصير الروابط

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رابط الموقع أو عنوان الإنترنت أو مسار مورد منمط وبالإنجليزية هي (URL) اختصارًا لـ (Uniform Resource Locator) وهو ذلك العنوان الذي تكتبه في شريط العنوان للذهاب إلى مواقع الإنترنت وتكون بصيغة (//:http) أو بصيغة (//:ftp) وعلى سبيل المثال عنوان صفحتنا هذه هو (http://www.anadigital.org)، حيث يضم العنوان بالترتيب ما يلي:

  • مفتاح البرتوكول (http).
  • اسم نطاق أو موقع الصفحة (anadigital).
  • نوع الامتداد (org).

ويعتبر المفتاح اختياريًا، حيث يقوم برنامج الويب الموجود في جهاز الكمبيوتر بكتابة مفتاح البرتوكول (//:http) بكتابته تلقائيًا كونها اللغة المعترف بها عند إرسال الصفحات عبر الوب. وأجزاء التسلسل الهرمى للتسمية تُفصل بالنقط الموجودة بالاسم، فالجزء الأخير يمثل نوع الوب كالتالي:

  • (com.): موقع تجاري.
  • (gov.): موقع حكومي.
  • (org.): موقع منظمة.
  • (uk.): بعض الدول قد تستخدم اسمها في العنوان وفي المثال مواقع المملكة المتحدة.

 

خدمة تقصير الروابط

خدمة تقصير الروابط, أو خدمة الروابط القصيرة (URL Shortening) هي خدمة حديثة نوعيًا في عالم الإنترنت. وهي تعتمد ببساطة على تقليص حجم الروابط من أجل سهولة نقلها وتذكرها أو إدراجها في عدة مقالات. ظهرت بدايةً في سنة 2002م مع موقع (TinyURL), وحينها ظهر أكثر من (100) موقع مشابه يقدم نفس الخدمة, معظمهم كان يسهل تذكر أسمائهم. والحقيقة أن الموقع الذي يقترح الخدمة يقوم بصنع رابط جديد, وفور دخول زائر لهذا الرابط يقوم الموقع بإعادة توجيهه إلى الرابط الذي يريده.

سبب ظهور الخدمة

إن السّبب الرئيسي وراء ظهور الخدمة هو وجود العديد من مواقع الإنترنت التي ولأسباب كثيرة تجعل روابطها طويلة جدًا, فمثلًا موقع باي بال (paypal.com) الذي يؤمن نقل الأموال بين الحسابات, ولكي يزيد من حماية صفحاته وتظليل مخترقي الحماية (الهاكرز), فإنه يقوم بإطالة روابطه وإضافة عدة معلومات تسمى ألغامًا لمنع أو محاولة كبح أي مجهود يهدف اختراقه، أو الصور الموجودة على فيس بوك مثلًا يتم إطالة روابطها حتى يصعب على المستخدم تذكر الرابط، وقياسًا على ذلك فإن المواقع الشهيرة جدًا تقوم بمثل هذه الإضافات لحماية نفسها.

حتى يسهل تذكر الروابط للمستخدمين, ولأن بعض برامج المحادثة كويندوز لايف ماسنجر (Windows Live Messenger) أو تويتر (Twitter) لا يسمحون إلا بعدد محدود من الرموز, ظهرت خدمة تقصير الروابط لغرض تقليص حجم الروابط وبالتالي سهولة إدراجها ونقلها.

مواقع تقدّم الخدمة:

  • موقع (TinyURL): وهو أشهر وأول المواقع المقدمة لهذه الخدمة ولكن أصبح الآن غير مستخدم كثيرًا نظرًا لعدم تطوره ولوجود منافسين يقدمون روابط أقصر مما يقترحها.
  • موقع (Bit.ly): أيضاً دخل الغمار ولا زال في قائمة المواقع التي تقدم الخدمة والسبب وراء ذلك اعتماد مواقع مثل تويتر عليه اعتمادًا أساسيًا.
  • موقع (Goo.gl): ظهر مؤخرًا وهو مقترح من طرف جوجل, كانت بدايته تقديم الخدمة للعملاء المميزين فقط, إلى أن تم فتح الخدمة مجانًا أمام الجميع.
  • موقع (YouTu.be): خاص بروابط شبكة يوتيوب ولا يسمح للأشخاص بتقليص روابط أي مواقع أخرى.
  • موقع (FB.me): خاص بموقع فيسبوك وأيضًا لا يسمح للأشخاص بتقصير روابط أي مواقع أخرى.

 

سلبيات الخدمة

لهذه الخدمة سلبيات كثيرة, فهي أحيانًا تنتهك خصوصيّة المواقع بسبب اقتراحها روابط مصغرة لروابطهم وبالتالي يسهل تذكرها من طرف المستخدم, أيضًا هذه الروابط تقوم مباشرة بإعادة توجيه إلى مواقع أخرى يمكن أن تحتوي على فيروسات أو مواقع ذات محتوى إباحي أو سلسلة منبثقات (Pop-ups) هدفها الإعلان وربح المال. كون الروابط قصيرة فهي لا تسمح للزوار بمعرفة الموقع المقصود وبالتالي يصبح الضغط على هذه الروابط أحيانًا خطأً فادحًا.

رغم أن بعض المواقع مثل موقع (bit.ly) تسمح بمعرفة عدد الزوّار الذين ضغطوا على رابط ما, إلا أن هذا يسهل على أي شخص تتبع حركة الزوار وعدد زياراتهم في حين أن هذه المعلومات عموما تكون سرية للغاية ولا يجب لأحد أن يضطلع عليها عدا أصحاب الموقع. وهناك خطر على حياة الروابط القصيرة فيكفي أن يتوقف الموقع الذي يقدم الخدمة, أو أن يقوم صاحب الرابط الأصلي بتغيير الرابط أو حذفه, حتى يصبح الرابط القصير بلا فائدة وبالتالي فإن الاعتماد عليه وحده فيه نوع من المجازفة.

نتيجة لهذا تم:

  • منع موقع (TinyURL) في السعودية.
  • سنة 2006م: ماي سبيس (MySpace) منع أي نشر لروابط موقع (TinyURL) المختصرة.
  • إجابات ياهو! (Yahoo Answers!) منع الروابط القصيرة.
  • سنة 2009م: تويتر قام باستبدال خدمات موقع (TinyURL) بموقع (Bit.ly).
  • موسوعة ويكيبيديا (Wikipedia) لا تقبل أي روابط قصيرة على صفحاتها.
  • العديد من المواقع أصبحت ترفض الروابط القصيرة.

 

إيجابيات الخدمة

عدا كون الخدمة مجانية وتسمح بتقصير الروابط فإن إيجابيات الخدمة ليست كثيرة. إلا أن من إيجابيات هذه الخدمة, تقديم بعض المواقع بشكل عفوي لروابط قصيرة لبعض محتوياته, مثلا, موقع (Youtu.be) الذي هو خدمة من موقع يوتيوب يقوم بتقليص روابط الفيديوهات الموجودة على يوتيوب فقط, وهذا النوع من تقصير الروابط آمن جدًا, حيث أنه يخلو من الفيروسات بشكل أكيد, كما أن المدراء إذا ما غيروا رابطًا لفيديو معين, سيتغير تلقائيًا في الرابط المقلص.

مثال للخدمة:

الرابط الأصلي عدد الرموز الرابط القصير عدد الرموز
http://anadigital.org/2012/03/writingpost/ 42 http://wp.me/p1r3j0-gQ 22
http://anadigital.org/2011/12/%D8%AA%D9
%88%D9%8A%D8%AA%D8%B1-%D8%B4
%D9%83%D9%84-%D8%AC%D8%AF%D9
%8A%D8%AF-%D9%8A%D9%86%D8%A7
%D9%81%D8%B3-%D9%81%D9%8A-
%D8%B3%D8%B1%D8%B9%D8%A9-%D8
%A7%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%AD%D9%85
%D9%8A%D9%84-%D9%88%D8%B3/
230 http://wp.me/p1r3j0-9s 22

* بتصرف عن موسوعة ويكيبيديا.

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